Among the ancient Egypt, facts are the military life, which we are going to mention the most important facts about it.
The main mission of the ancient Egyptian army was to defend Egypt and protect it from any attack or invasion.
The main concern of the Egyptian army is to secure the borders of the country.
The first known regular army in Egypt was introduced after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt when king Narmer enabled to unify the country under his rule.
The natural borders of Egypt acted as a natural defense as the western desert was found in the west and the Mediterranean Sea from the north and the eastern desert.
This borders made the enemies found great difficulties in conquering and attacking the country.
The ancient Egyptian history was divided into three eras:
The Old kingdom, the Middle kingdom, and the new kingdom. Between each era, there was a collapsing era known as an intermediate period.
The conditions of the army differ and also the main enemies of the country changed according to each era.
Ancient Egyptian facts about army at the old Kingdom
The army at the old kingdom consisted of low-class men especially from the artisans and the unemployed men. The army wasn’t professional enough in comparing with the army in the next eras.
The main enemies of the Egypt at that time were the Libyans from the west, Nubians from the south and the Sinai people from the northeast.
Army at middle kingdom
In the Middle Kingdom, Egypt started to control the other countries and lands around it.
Egypt was forced to do this because of two reasons:
The first one was to secure its borders and protect its own resources and lands.
The other one was to secure the trade routes from the attacks of the enemies.
The second intermediate period
At the second intermediate period, Egypt faced a very weak and dark era as the country was in chaos. Of course at these circumstances of weakness and collapsing the army also was very weak.
At the 14th dynasty, a group of Asiatic tribes called the “Hyksos” conquered Egypt and took the city of “Avaris” as their capital.
They settled in Egypt for about 200 years. King Ahmose I (the founder of the 18th dynasty) fought for the freedom and enabled to free the country.
Facts about Egypt army at the new kingdom
After the invasion, Egypt entered a new era (the new kingdom). The army at this era was totally different from the previous one.
It became more professional and experienced. Scholars described the new kingdom as the age of the military glory.
Egypt expanded its borders at this time and the army was able to defend the country from its new enemies like Hittiets, Asiatic people, Libyans, and the sea people.
The Egyptian army reached its peak at the time of king Ramses II. The scholars described king Ramses II as the greatest warrior in the pharaonic history.
Ancient Egypt facts about army troops
In the new kingdom the army was divided for the first time into troops:
Infantry troops were the most important troops in the ancient Egyptian army. They used weapons like spear, bows and arrows, the throwing stick and the sling.
These troops consisted of the Egyptians and partially the mercenaries.
Also, it was a very important troop. These troops were introduced in Egypt at the time of the Hyksos. The Hyksos are considered the first people to use this weapon.
The Egyptians used this weapon for the first time at their war with the Hyksos. Later they managed to improve this weapon and make it faster.
It was pulled by two horses and used by two men, the first one who drove the horses and the other who held the bow and hitting the enemies.
The ancient Egyptian society comprised three significant classes: the peasants, the priests, and the military.
Supplies such as meat, fish, vegetables, bread and two linen outfits were provided every month to the regular army during the reign of Seti I.
In parades, each bridge maintained its own standard distinguished by a different color.
During the reign of Ramses II and Ramses III, the son of the king (from his own blood and flesh) was entitled (the first steersman of his Majesty and overseer of the horses).
Meanwhile, we found several messages for the first steersman (Ent-M.api) in which he entitled himself (the Royal Envoy) to different foreign lands and the chief of the main and foreign lands).
As an educated person he despised the profession of the private nafr, since one of his students “Bebis” was thinking to be an infantry soldier.
In this respect he wrote the following poem:
He is brought as an infant and be “detained” in the soldier’s barracks.
He receives a painful blow on his belly.
And they force him to fold and unfold himself as a roll of papyrus. Until he is torn apart.
In missions to Syria.
He has to carry his food and water.
Over his shoulder.
As an ass which causes his a stiff neck as a camel, his back aches, and usually he drinks stagnant water.
In the Islamic Ages the elite class, closely related to or acquainted with the Sultan had enjoyed such privileges as real estates, an enormous building which their values were probably in excess of 100.000 Dinars.
This was during the reign of al-Nasir Muhammed Ibn Qalawun.
Moreover, they received clothes, and in their hunting trips were provided with animal feed.
In return, they fully complied with the ethics, as when they were on duty in the palace or the offices, they used to stick to their assigned posts, and never spoke to each other, otherwise they were arrested or exiled.
The military orders were enforceable and adhered to throughout ages.
During the reign of the Pharaohs, the orders were issued to the military expected to men precisely, and the soldiers were under no circumstances expected to show disobedience.